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Le Corbusier (1887 – 1965)

architect

Nationality:

Swiss

Famous Buildings:

L’Esprit Nouveau Pavilion (Paris)
Villa Savoye (Poissy)
Unité d’Habitation (Marseilles)
L’Esprit Nouveau
Le Corbusier is without doubt the
most influential, most admired, and
most maligned architect of the
twentieth century. Through his
writing and his buildings, he is the
main player in the Modernist story,
his visions of homes and cities as
innovative as they are influential.
Many of his ideas on urban living
became the blueprint for post-war
reconstruction, and the many
failures of his would-be imitators led
to Le Corbusier being blamed for the
problems of western cities in the
1960s and 1970s.
Like Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, and
other architects of his generation, Le
Corbusier had little architectural
training. But he did have a strong
conviction that the twentieth
century would be an age of progress:
an age when engineering and
technological advances, and new
ways of living, would change the
world for good. Only architecture
was failing to embrace the future, as
new buildings continued to ape
various historical styles.
In 1908, Le Corbusier went to work
with Auguste Perret, the French
architect who had pioneered the use
of reinforced concrete, and then
Peter Behrens, the German exponent
of ‘industrial design’. Behrens
admired the engineer’s ethic of mass
production, logical design, and
function over style, and Corbusier
brought two of these early
influences together in his ‘Maison
Dom-Ino’ plan of 1915.
This house would be made of
reinforced concrete and was
intended for mass production, but
was also flexible: none of the walls
were load-bearing and so the
interior could be re-arranged as the
occupant wished.

A House Is A Machine For Living In

By 1918, Corbusier’s ideas on how
architecture should meet the
demands of the machine age led
him to develop, in collaboration with
the artist Amédée Ozenfant, a new
theory: Purism. Purist rules would
lead the architect always to refine
and simplify design, dispensing with
ornamentation. Architecture would
be as efficient as a factory assembly
line. Soon, Le Corbusier was
developing standardised housing
‘types’ like the ‘Immeuble-
villa’ (made real with the Pavilion de
l’Esprit Nouveau of 1925), and the
Maison Citrohan (a play on words
suggesting the building industry
should adopt the methods of the
mass production automobile
industry), which he hoped would
solve the chronic housing problems
of industrialised countries.
His radical ideas were given full
expression in his 1923 book Vers
Une Architecture (“Towards a New
Architecture”), an impassioned
manifesto which is still the best-
selling architecture book of all time.
“A house”, Le Corbusier intoned from
its pages, “is a machine for living in.”
But despite his love of the machine
aesthetic, Le Corbusier was
determined that his architecture
would reintroduce nature into
people’s lives. Victorian cities were
chaotic and dark prisons for many of
their inhabitants. Le Corbusier was
convinced that a rationally planned
city, using the standardised housing
types he had developed, could offer
a healthy, humane alternative.

Urbanisme

The first of his grand urban plans
was the Ville Contemporaine of 1922.
This proposed city of three million
would be divided into functional
zones: twenty-four glass towers in
the centre would form the
commercial district, separated from
the industrial and residential
districts by expansive green belts. In
1925, Corbusier’s ambitious Plan
Voisin for Paris envisioned the
destruction of virtually the entire
north bank of the Seine to
incorporate a mini version of the
Ville Contemporaine.
Understandably, it remained only a
plan.
More realistic was the Ville Radieuse
(1933-1935), in which long slab
blocks were laid out in parkland and
where the housing types were
considerably cheaper than the
Immeuble-villas which filled earlier
plans. A version of this was built at
the Alton West Estate in
Roehampton,
England in 1958.
After the Second World War, with
Europe’s housing problems worse
than ever, Le Corbusier got his
chance to put his urban theories into
practice. The Unité d’Habitation in
Marseilles (1952) is a synthesis of
three decades of Corbusian domestic
and urban thinking. Seventeen
storeys high and designed to house
1,600 people, the Unite incorporates
various types of apartment, shops,
clubs and meeting room, all
connected by raised ‘streets’. There
is also a hotel and recreation
facilities. It is now an immensely
popular building, and a coveted
address for Marseille’s middle-class
professionals today.
When Le Corbusier died in 1965, the
backlash against Modernism was
gaining momentum. His theories on
urban renewal were plagiarised by
local authorities on tight budgets,
which often failed to understand the
essential humanism behind Le
Corbusier’s plans.was
the result. But blaming Le Corbusier
as the architect of post-war housing
failure ignores the deep concern for
human comfort and health that
underpinned his work.

his work—>>https://architectbd.wordpress.com/2013/08/19/famous-buildings-that-you-must-see-19-villa-savoye-2/

আইপি হাইড করে ফেলুনএকটা ক্লিকে ১০ সেকেন্ডেরমধ্য

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